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Request PDF | Problem gambling in Europe: Challenges, prevention, and interventions | Challenges, Prevention, and Interventions Edited by Gerhard Meyer.


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The Road to Immunity During COVID-19 β€” Developing and Distributing a Vaccine

It should also be noted that there are some variations in problem gambling prevalence rates that occur among different continents: in North America problem gambling prevalence rates ranged from 2. However, the authors claimed that any comparisons between surveys should be treated with caution as there were significant differences with regard to sample sizes, as well as the number of sessions per school Ipsos MORI Finally, another representative dataset concerning adolescent gambling was derived from the ESPAD study Molinaro et al. It is concluded that a small but significant minority of adolescents have gambling-related problems. Individuals with serious conduct problems as assessed using the SDQ questionnaire were more likely to gamble. In addition, the total number of harms experienced by adolescents during the past 6-month period as a consequence of their gambling was 2. The first study was conducted by Hurrelmann et al. Boys had more gambling problems than girls. In Europe, problem gambling prevalence rates ranged from 0. Recent studies e. There is one Croatian study on adolescent gambling conducted by Dodig , which used the CAGI, an instrument created specifically for assessing adolescent problem gambling Tremblay et al. The present overview of research on adolescent gambling and problem gambling across the world conducted since shows that there are many countries that have never carried out studies on adolescent gambling behaviour. Previous research has shown that gambling is a popular activity among adolescents. Molinaro et al. Consequently, European studies showed the highest and the lowest adolescent problem gambling prevalence rate. Boys were more likely than girls to be classified as problem gamblers 1. However, despite this variability, several demographic characteristics were associated with adolescent gambling involvement and problem gambling. The search was conducted with the same terms in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese, in order to obtain as many prevalence studies as possible and to avoid English publication bias. The results showed that The findings showed that the proportion of gambling-related problems were more prevalent among young men. Furthermore, the increased availability of legal gambling appears to have led to some increases in the prevalence of adolescent gambling and to the development of gambling problems among young people. With respect to the type of gambling they had participated in, There are some data concerning adolescent gambling in Cyprus, as a part of a wider study that examined adolescent problem gambling across nine European countries Molinaro et al. To our knowledge, only one study conducted in the Greek island of Kos examining adolescent Internet gambling Floros et al. International studies have consistently shown that gambling is part of the life experiences of most young people Hayer and Griffiths Furthermore, the current generation of youth have grown up in an era where gambling opportunities are widespread Volberg et al. The present review considers the combined rate of problem and pathological gambling, as many studies merge problem gambling with pathological gambling compared to behaviour from non-gamblers and non-problem gamblers e. However, in the case of countries that did not have a national prevalence study, but instead had conducted studies at a regional level with a representative sample, these studies were included. Another more recent study examined online gambling in Cyprus Floros et al. In the second step, studies were excluded due to the following criteria: 1 a sample of less than participants three studies ; 2 did not use a standardized measure to assess problem gambling five studies , and 3 only examined gambling and problem gambling in the context of a specific form of gambling two studies. The findings showed that 0. However, the survey did not use any standardised instrument to assess problem gambling. Furthermore, the most frequently reported reasons for engaging in gambling behaviours were to win money Gambling to escape problems and the inability to resist temptation were reported more frequently among the at-risk and problem gamblers than among the non-problem gamblers. In order to present a more in-depth analysis for each European country, other data from other studies such as a description about the most popular gambling activities, and demographics associated with problem gambling are included. The European Union appears to be moving towards a more continued expansion of gambling characterized by the legalization and liberalization of gambling markets over the past few decades Kingma This may put more young people at risk of developing gambling-related problems, especially underage youth, and suggests the need to provide a full overview of the European continent. Therefore, the present review updates and expands on previous reviews and provides a brief country-by-country analysis of the evidence of adolescent gambling and problem gambling in that particular country in alphabetical order. Thus, concerns about adolescent gambling have encouraged public health workers to study the epidemiology of gambling as this helps to characterize this phenomenon Gupta and Derevensky Consequently, there is a need for conducting a systematic review in order to synthesize the trends in adolescent gambling and to analyse the comparative prevalence of problem gambling rates across different countries. Moreover, reference lists of retrieved studies and from other reviews already available in the literature were also searched in order to identify any additional relevant studies. In addition, the development of technology has generated new forms of gambling via the Internet, mobile phone and interactive television Griffiths and Parke It has also been argued that youth are receptive to modern forms of gambling because of the apparent similarity between these games and other familiar technology-based games Delfabbro et al. Results showed that During the previous six years, participation rates on those gambling activities had been decreasing each year from However, no information was provided with regard to problem gambling prevalence rates.

Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. The overall prevalence rate of problem gambling was 1. As a part of a wider study of youth habits, Kinable conducted a study with 38, https://1-veda.ru/gambling/gambling-commission-license-holders.html aged 12β€”years.

According to both instruments, females problem gambling in europe challenges prevention and interventions less likely to be classed as problem gamblers. Problem gamblers were more likely to be boys than girls Ashworth and Doyle The survey showed a prevalence of problem gambling of 3.

Studies were also excluded if they 1 had a sample size of less than participants, 2 did not use a standardized instrument to assess problem gambling, and 3 assessed problem gambling in the context of a specific form of gambling, such as Internet gambling.

Online gambling was associated with significantly higher Internet Addiction scores, lower parental care, and higher parental overprotection. The goal was to locate all prevalence studies that were conducted at a national level.

Problem gambling was more prevalent among boys 4.

Since it was proposed to provide a more detailed examination about gambling and problem gambling in each European country, the present review also includes some studies that were not included in the initial overview, such as studies that did not use a standardized measure to assess problem gambling five studies or studies that assessed problem gambling in the context of a specific mode of gambling, such as online gambling two studies. In fact, most research on adolescent gambling has been conducted in Europe, North America and Australia. Therefore, for countries that had prevalence data at both regional and national level, only national data were considered. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. The most popular past year gambling activities were scratch tickets With regard to Internet gambling, The most popular forms of gambling on the Internet were casino type games on non-Icelandic websites The findings showed that 2. It was also reported that problem and at-risk gamblers more often played with friends or alone than with parents. There have been very few studies on adolescent gambling behaviour in Greece. Although there are other reviews in the literature concerning adolescent gambling e. Therefore, in the next section, a more detailed overview about adolescent gambling and problem gambling in the European continent will be presented. The results showed that problem gamblers were more likely to exhibit other potentially addictive behaviours i. No standardized instrument to assess problem gambling was applied to students. The information reported is based on a English abstract and in the review of Kristiansen and Jensen conducted among the Nordic countries, and thus it was not possible to obtain more specific information about the methodology, such as the modality of survey used and response rates. Nonetheless, the criterion for excluding studies with less than participants was maintained. A more recent study was conducted by Duven et al. Moreover, at-risk gamblers and problem gamblers played via their mobile phones and on the Internet to a greater extent than non-problem gamblers. The present paper reviews studies that have been conducted worldwide since , and then presents a more detailed picture of adolescent gambling research in Europe, by providing a country-by country analysis. Firstly, to briefly review the most recent international research published since , with respect to problem gambling prevalence rates among adolescents, as the past few decades have witnessed an unprecedented growth in the gambling industry, which could have led to the development of gambling-related problems among young people Meyer et al. There are some data available for this country, as a part of a wider study that examined adolescent problem gambling across nine European countries Molinaro et al. There are a number of empirical studies examining adolescent gambling in Germany see Hayer , but the majority of them are only available in the German language. From the total of participants, 6. Therefore, the aim of the present review is twofold. Such findings will hopefully encourage more research into youth gambling to further understand the determinants of this phenomenon. Secondly to present a more detailed picture of adolescent gambling in Europe. The problem gambling rate was 2. A more recent study was carried out by Raisamo et al. After an extensive search on academic databases and following an exclusion process, 44 studies were identified. Older respondents reported more gambling problems, although this relationship did not reach statistical significance Kristiansen and Jensen Problem gamblers participated in more different gambling activities than at-risk gamblers, who in turn participated in more activities than non-problem gamblers. With regard to youth gambling, a study was conducted on behalf of the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health during Ilkas and Aho Moreover, it was estimated that the risk group for problem gambling included approximately 1. Following a rapid expansion of legalized gambling opportunities and the emergence of new forms of gambling, many researchers have carried out studies on adolescent gambling and problem gambling. The results indicated that Moreover, 2. The prevalence of gambling was significantly higher among boys than girls. This paper summarized probable problem gambling across nine European countries using data from ESPAD, and which did not indicate the response rates for each country. However, despite the lack of research in some countries, studies show that 0. Moreover, 5. According to the survey, higher problem rates were found for smokers 6. After analysing the ESPAD report in detail, it can be observed that student response rates were not available for Cyprus, Italy and Romania, and thus the response rates for these countries were not reported in the present review. In the first step, 54 studies were identified after a careful examination of the titles and abstracts of the studies generated by the search on the aforementioned databases and through reference lists from other studies and reviews.